## What will we cover in the tutorial

• You create your default map using Choropleth from folium (or any other) and the color distribution is poor. Most countries are distributed between two colors, which makes the map less informative.
• Understand the issue
• How to solve it
• …and putting it all together.

## Step 1: Understand the issue

In this example we have used the divorce rates in reported in various countries on wikipedia’s page of Divorce Demography

At first inspection on the wikipedia page you get an idea of what the problem is.

The divorce rate in Denmark is too high (just kidding, I am from Denmark and not proud that Denmark is ranking number 6 based on percentage of marriages that end in divorce).

The issue is, that the distribution is not even. See the highest is Tunisia with 97.14 percent, then Portugal is second with 70.97 percent. This has to be compared to the color coding. The last two colors are by default distributed to 67 to 82 and 82 to 97, which only contain 1 country each.

To inspect this further, we need to retrieve the data and inspect it.

To retrieve the data we can use pandas – read this tutorial for details or see the code below.

```import pandas as pd

# The URL we will read our data from
url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divorce_demography'
# read_html returns a list of tables from the URL

# The data is in the second table
table = tables[0]
# We need to remove level 0 of columns as they are disturbing the data
table.columns = table.columns.droplevel(0)

def is_float(str):
try:
float(str)
return True
except:
return False

# We need to convert the data to floats
index = 'Divorce_float'
table[index] = table.apply(lambda row: float(row['Percent']) if is_float(row['Percent']) else np.nan, axis=1)

print(pd.cut(table[index], 6).value_counts(sort=False))
```

If we inspect the output we see that our suggestion was right.

```(6.93, 22.04]     25
(22.04, 37.06]    26
(37.06, 52.08]    22
(52.08, 67.1]      9
(67.1, 82.12]      1
(82.12, 97.14]     1
Name: Divorce_float, dtype: int64
```
```The last two color codes are only used by one country each, while the first 3 are used by 20+ countries.
```

## Step 2: Distribute the countries into evenly distributed bins

This requires to understand the difference between cut and qcut of pandas library.

• cut By default will return the same size bins.
• qcut Will by default try to return buckets with the same number of items in.

See this example to understand it better.

```import pandas as pd

# The URL we will read our data from
url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divorce_demography'
# read_html returns a list of tables from the URL

# The data is in the second table
table = tables[0]
# We need to remove level 0 of columns as they are disturbing the data
table.columns = table.columns.droplevel(0)

def is_float(str):
try:
float(str)
return True
except:
return False

# We need to convert the data to floats
index = 'Divorce_float'
table[index] = table.apply(lambda row: float(row['Percent']) if is_float(row['Percent']) else np.nan, axis=1)

print(pd.qcut(table[index], 6).value_counts(sort=False))
```

Where the only difference is that we changed cut to qcut on the last line. This will result in the following output.

```(7.018999999999999, 17.303]    14
(17.303, 23.957]               14
(23.957, 31.965]               14
(31.965, 40.0]                 15
(40.0, 47.078]                 13
(47.078, 97.14]                14
Name: Divorce_float, dtype: int64
```

Where we see that each bucket now contains approximately the same number of countries.

Hence, we need to use that for our purpose of color distribution our map.

## Step 3: Putting it all together on the map

If you are new to folium and how make awesome leaflet maps easy, I can recommend to read this tutorial, or inspect the code below.

```import pandas as pd
import folium
import geopandas
import numpy as np

# The URL we will read our data from
url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Divorce_demography'
# read_html returns a list of tables from the URL

# The data is in the second table
table = tables[0]
# We need to remove level 0 of columns as they are disturbing the data
table.columns = table.columns.droplevel(0)

# We should clean the data
table['Country'] = table.apply(lambda row: row['Country/region'].split(' (')[0] if type(row['Country/region']) == str else row['Country/region'], axis=1)

# Replace United States of America to United States to fit the naming in the table
world = world.replace('United States of America', 'United States')

# Merge the two DataFrames together
table = world.merge(table, how="left", left_on=['name'], right_on=['Country'])

def is_float(str):
try:
float(str)
return True
except:
return False

# We need to convert the data to floats
index = 'Divorce_float'
table[index] = table.apply(lambda row: float(row['Percent']) if is_float(row['Percent']) else np.nan, axis=1)

# Clean data: remove rows with no data
table = table.dropna(subset=[index])

# We have 10 colors available resulting into 9 cuts.
bins_data = pd.qcut(table[index], 9).value_counts(sort=False)
print(bins_data)

bins = [0]
for i in range(9):
bins.append(int(round(bins_data.index.values[i].right)))
bins[9] = 100

# Create a map
my_map = folium.Map()

folium.Choropleth(
geo_data=table,
name='choropleth',
data=table,
columns=['Country', index],
key_on='feature.properties.name',
fill_color='OrRd',
fill_opacity=0.7,
line_opacity=0.2,
legend_name=index,
threshold_scale=bins
my_map.save('divorse_rates.html')
```

Where we combine the two DataFrames and take advantage of that we have 10 colors available.

It should result in a map like this one.

## What will we cover

• You want to map data from an HTML table to an interactive map.
• The data is not clean and it is difficult to map data to countries, as they are often called different.

## Step 1: Using Pandas to read the data

We will look at a table of data from wikipedia.org. In this example we will look at the data from average human heights by country.

Inspecting the first few columns you see a few issues already. There is some data missing and some countries are represented more than once.

To simplify our exercise we will only look at Average male height.

Let’s use pandas to read the content and inspect it. If you are new to pandas I can recommend the this post.

To read the content you can use the read_html(url) call from the pandas library. You need to instal lxml as well, see this post of details.

```import pandas as pd

# The URL we will read our data from
url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_human_height_by_country'
# read_html returns a list of tables from the URL

# The data is in the first table
table = tables[0]

print(table[:20])
```

Which will result in the following output.

```            Country/Region        Average male height  ...       Year    Source
0                  Albania   174.0 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)  ...  2008–2009  [11][12]
1                Argentina                        NaN  ...  2004–2005      [13]
2                Argentina  174.46 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)  ...  1998–2001      [14]
3                  Armenia                        NaN  ...       2005      [15]
4                Australia       175.6 cm (5 ft 9 in)  ...  2011–2012      [16]
5                  Austria    179 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)  ...       2006      [17]
6               Azerbaijan   171.8 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)  ...       2005      [18]
7                  Bahrain       165.1 cm (5 ft 5 in)  ...       2002      [19]
8                  Bahrain   171.0 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)  ...       2009  [20][21]
9               Bangladesh                        NaN  ...       2007      [15]
10          Country/Region        Average male height  ...       Year    Source
11                 Belgium  178.6 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)  ...       2001      [22]
12                   Benin                        NaN  ...       2006      [15]
13                 Bolivia                        NaN  ...       2003      [15]
14                 Bolivia       160.0 cm (5 ft 3 in)  ...       1970      [23]
15  Bosnia and Herzegovina       183.9 cm (6 ft 0 in)  ...       2014      [24]
16                  Brazil       170.7 cm (5 ft 7 in)  ...       2009  [25][26]
17          Brazil – Urban   173.5 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)  ...       2009      [25]
18          Brazil – Rural   170.9 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)  ...       2009      [25]
19                Bulgaria       175.2 cm (5 ft 9 in)  ...       2010      [27]
```

Where you by inspection of line 10 see a line of input that needs to be cleaned.

## Step 2: Some basic cleaning of the data

By inspection of the data you see that every 10 lines (or something) an line repeats the column names.

While this is practical if you inspect the data as a user, this seems to be annoying for us when we want to use the raw data.

Luckily this is easy to clean up using pandas.

```import pandas as pd

# The URL we will read our data from
url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_human_height_by_country'
# read_html returns a list of tables from the URL

# The data is in the first table
table = tables[0]

# To avoid writing it all the time
AVG_MH = 'Average male height'
# Remove duplicate rows with 'Average male height'
table = table.loc[table[AVG_MH] != AVG_MH].copy()

print(table[:20])
```

Where you can see the data is has cleaned up these columns.

```            Country/Region        Average male height  ...       Year    Source
0                  Albania   174.0 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)  ...  2008–2009  [11][12]
1                Argentina                        NaN  ...  2004–2005      [13]
2                Argentina  174.46 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)  ...  1998–2001      [14]
3                  Armenia                        NaN  ...       2005      [15]
4                Australia       175.6 cm (5 ft 9 in)  ...  2011–2012      [16]
5                  Austria    179 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)  ...       2006      [17]
6               Azerbaijan   171.8 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)  ...       2005      [18]
7                  Bahrain       165.1 cm (5 ft 5 in)  ...       2002      [19]
8                  Bahrain   171.0 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)  ...       2009  [20][21]
9               Bangladesh                        NaN  ...       2007      [15]
11                 Belgium  178.6 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)  ...       2001      [22]
12                   Benin                        NaN  ...       2006      [15]
13                 Bolivia                        NaN  ...       2003      [15]
14                 Bolivia       160.0 cm (5 ft 3 in)  ...       1970      [23]
15  Bosnia and Herzegovina       183.9 cm (6 ft 0 in)  ...       2014      [24]
16                  Brazil       170.7 cm (5 ft 7 in)  ...       2009  [25][26]
17          Brazil – Urban   173.5 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)  ...       2009      [25]
18          Brazil – Rural   170.9 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)  ...       2009      [25]
19                Bulgaria       175.2 cm (5 ft 9 in)  ...       2010      [27]
20            Burkina Faso                        NaN  ...       2003      [15]
```

## Step 3: Convert data to floats

Inspecting the data that we need (Average male height) it is represented as a string with both the cm and ft/in figure. As I live in Denmark and we use the metric system and have never really understood any benefit of the US customary units (feel free to enlighten me).

Hence, we want to convert the strings in the column Average male height to a float representing the height in cm.

Notice, that some are NaN, while the rest are having the first number as the length in cm.

We can exploit that and convert it with a lambda function. If you are new to lambda functions you can see this tutorial.

```import pandas as pd
import numpy as np

# The URL we will read our data from
url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_human_height_by_country'
# read_html returns a list of tables from the URL

# The data is in the first table
table = tables[0]

# To avoid writing it all the time
AVG_MH = 'Average male height'
AMH_F = 'Aveage male height (float)'

# Remove duplicate rows with 'Average male height'
table = table.loc[table[AVG_MH] != AVG_MH].copy()

# Clean up data to have height in cm
table[AMH_F] = table.apply(lambda row: float(row[AVG_MH].split(' ')[0]) if row[AVG_MH] is not np.nan else np.nan,
axis=1)
print(table[:20])
```

Resulting in the following.

```            Country/Region  ... Aveage male height (float)
0                  Albania  ...                     174.00
1                Argentina  ...                        NaN
2                Argentina  ...                     174.46
3                  Armenia  ...                        NaN
4                Australia  ...                     175.60
5                  Austria  ...                     179.00
6               Azerbaijan  ...                     171.80
7                  Bahrain  ...                     165.10
8                  Bahrain  ...                     171.00
11                 Belgium  ...                     178.60
12                   Benin  ...                        NaN
13                 Bolivia  ...                        NaN
14                 Bolivia  ...                     160.00
15  Bosnia and Herzegovina  ...                     183.90
16                  Brazil  ...                     170.70
17          Brazil – Urban  ...                     173.50
18          Brazil – Rural  ...                     170.90
19                Bulgaria  ...                     175.20
20            Burkina Faso  ...                        NaN
```

Notice that np.nan is also a float and hence, the full column Average male height (float) are floats.

## Step 4: Merge two sets of data with different representations of countries

To make the map in the end we will use the geopandas library, which has a nice low resolution dataset used to color countries. While the data by geopandas is represented as a DataFrame it is difficult to merge it as the DataFrame we have created from the htm_read call to pandas has varying names.

Example can be United States in the one we created and United States of America in the geopandas. Hence, we need some means to map them to the same representation.

For this purpose we can use the library pycountry.

Hence, applying that to both DataFrames we can merge them.

```import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import geopandas
import pycountry

# Helper function to map country names to alpha_3 representation - though some are not known by library
def lookup_country_code(country):
try:
return pycountry.countries.lookup(country).alpha_3
except LookupError:
return country

# The URL we will read our data from
url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_human_height_by_country'
# read_html returns a list of tables from the URL

# The data is in the first table
table = tables[0]

# To avoid writing it all the time
AVG_MH = 'Average male height'
CR = 'Country/Region'
COUNTRY = 'Country'
AMH_F = 'Aveage male height (float)'
A3 = 'alpha3'

# Remove duplicate rows with 'Average male height'
table = table.loc[table[AVG_MH] != AVG_MH].copy()

# Clean up data to have height in cm
table[AMH_F] = table.apply(lambda row: float(row[AVG_MH].split(' ')[0]) if row[AVG_MH] is not np.nan else np.nan,
axis=1)

# Clean up the names if used a dash before
table[COUNTRY] = table.apply(
lambda row: row[CR].split(' – ')[0] if ' – ' in row[CR] else row[CR],
axis=1)
# Map the country name to the alpha3 representation
table[A3] = table.apply(lambda row: lookup_country_code(row[COUNTRY]), axis=1)

# Do the same mapping to alpha3
world[A3] = world.apply(lambda row: lookup_country_code(row['name']), axis=1)

# Merge the data
table = world.merge(table, how="left", left_on=[A3], right_on=[A3])

# Remove countries with no data
table = table.dropna(subset=[AMH_F])

# These lines are just used to get the full data
pd.set_option('display.max_rows', 300)
pd.set_option('display.max_columns', 50)
pd.set_option('display.width', 1000)
print(table)
```

Which will result in the following.

```        pop_est      continent                      name iso_a3  gdp_md_est                                           geometry       alpha3                                 Country/Region         Average male height      Average female height Stature ratio(male to female)                      Sample population / age range Share ofpop. over 18covered[9][10][c]    Methodology       Year           Source  Aveage male height (float)               Country
3      35623680  North America                    Canada    CAN   1674000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-122.84000 49.00000, -122.9742...          CAN                                         Canada        175.1 cm (5 ft 9 in)       162.3 cm (5 ft 4 in)                          1.08                                              18–79                                 94.7%       Measured  2007–2009             [29]                      175.10                Canada
4     326625791  North America  United States of America    USA  18560000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-122.84000 49.00000, -120.0000...          USA                                  United States        175.3 cm (5 ft 9 in)   161.5 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.09  All Americans, 20+ (N= m:5,232 f:5,547, Median...                                   69%       Measured  2011–2014            [132]                      175.30         United States
5     326625791  North America  United States of America    USA  18560000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-122.84000 49.00000, -120.0000...          USA              United States – African Americans        175.5 cm (5 ft 9 in)       162.6 cm (5 ft 4 in)                          1.08  African Americans, 20–39 (N= m:532 f:612, Medi...                             3.4%[133]       Measured  2015-2016            [134]                      175.50         United States
6     326625791  North America  United States of America    USA  18560000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-122.84000 49.00000, -120.0000...          USA  United States – Hispanic and Latino Americans    169.5 cm (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)   156.7 cm (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)                          1.08  Hispanic/Latin-Americans, 20–39 (N= m:745 f:91...                             4.4%[133]       Measured  2015–2016            [134]                      169.50         United States
7     326625791  North America  United States of America    USA  18560000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-122.84000 49.00000, -120.0000...          USA              United States – Mexican Americans    168.8 cm (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)   156.1 cm (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)                          1.09  Mexican Americans, 20–39 (N= m:429 f:511, Medi...                             2.8%[133]       Measured  2015–2016            [134]                      168.80         United States
8     326625791  North America  United States of America    USA  18560000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-122.84000 49.00000, -120.0000...          USA                United States – Asian Americans        169.7 cm (5 ft 7 in)   156.2 cm (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)                          1.09  Non-Hispanic Asians, 20–39 (N= m:323 f:326, Me...                             1.3%[133]       Measured  2015–2016            [134]                      169.70         United States
9     326625791  North America  United States of America    USA  18560000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-122.84000 49.00000, -120.0000...          USA            United States – Non-Hispanic whites    177.0 cm (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)   163.3 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)                          1.08  Non-Hispanic White Americans, 20–39 (N= m:892 ...                            17.1%[133]       Measured  2015–2016            [134]                      177.00         United States
13    260580739           Asia                 Indonesia    IDN   3028000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((141.00021 -2.60015, 141.01706 ...          IDN                                      Indonesia          158 cm (5 ft 2 in)        147 cm (4 ft 10 in)                          1.07  50+ (N= m:2,041 f:2,396, Median= m:158 cm (5 f...                                 22.5%  Self-reported       1997             [59]                      158.00             Indonesia
15     44293293  South America                 Argentina    ARG    879400.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-68.63401 -52.63637, -68.25000...          ARG                                      Argentina   174.46 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)  161.01 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.08  Healthy, 18 (N= m:90 f:97, SD= m:7.43 cm (3 in...                                  2.9%       Measured  1998–2001             [14]                      174.46             Argentina
16     17789267  South America                     Chile    CHL    436100.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-68.63401 -52.63637, -68.63335...          CHL                                          Chile        169.6 cm (5 ft 7 in)   156.1 cm (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)                          1.09                                                15+                                107.2%       Measured  2009–2010             [30]                      169.60                 Chile
19     47615739         Africa                     Kenya    KEN    152700.0  POLYGON ((39.20222 -4.67677, 37.76690 -3.67712...          KEN                                          Kenya        169.6 cm (5 ft 7 in)                        NaN                           NaN        25–49 (N= f:1,600, SD= f:6.3 cm (2 1⁄2 in))                                 53.7%        Summary       2016             [69]                      169.60                 Kenya
20     47615739         Africa                     Kenya    KEN    152700.0  POLYGON ((39.20222 -4.67677, 37.76690 -3.67712...          KEN                                          Kenya        169.6 cm (5 ft 7 in)   158.2 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                           NaN            25–49 (N= f:4,856, SD= f:7.3 cm (3 in))                                 52.5%         Survey       2016         [15][69]                      169.60                 Kenya
25    142257519         Europe                    Russia    RUS   3745000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((178.72530 71.09880, 180.00000 ...       Russia                                         Russia    171.1 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)   158.2 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                         44-69 (N= m: 3892 f: 4643)                                 38.5%       Measured       2007             [93]                      171.10                Russia
26    142257519         Europe                    Russia    RUS   3745000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((178.72530 71.09880, 180.00000 ...       Russia                                         Russia       177.2 cm (5 ft 10 in)   164.1 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                                                 24                                  1.9%       Measured       2004         [21][98]                      177.20                Russia
29      5320045         Europe                    Norway    -99    364700.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((15.14282 79.67431, 15.52255 80...          NOR                                         Norway   179.7 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)       167.1 cm (5 ft 6 in)                          1.09           Conscripts, 18–44 (N= m:30,884 f:28,796)                                 35.3%       Measured       2012             [88]                      179.70                Norway
30      5320045         Europe                    Norway    -99    364700.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((15.14282 79.67431, 15.52255 80...          NOR                                         Norway   179.7 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)     167 cm (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                           20–85 (N= m:1534 f:1743)                                 93.6%  Self-reported  2008–2009      [9][26][89]                      179.70                Norway
34     54841552         Africa              South Africa    ZAF    739100.0  POLYGON ((16.34498 -28.57671, 16.82402 -28.082...          ZAF                                   South Africa          168 cm (5 ft 6 in)     159 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.06                                19 (N= m:121 f:118)                                  3.6%       Measured       2003            [110]                      168.00          South Africa
36    124574795  North America                    Mexico    MEX   2307000.0  POLYGON ((-117.12776 32.53534, -115.99135 32.6...          MEX                                         Mexico      172 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)     159 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                                              20–65                                 62.0%       Measured       2014             [83]                      172.00                Mexico
37      3360148  South America                   Uruguay    URY     73250.0  POLYGON ((-57.62513 -30.21629, -56.97603 -30.1...          URY                                        Uruguay          170 cm (5 ft 7 in)         158 cm (5 ft 2 in)                          1.08                        Adults (N= m:2,249 f:2,114)                                   NaN       Measured       1990            [135]                      170.00               Uruguay
38    207353391  South America                    Brazil    BRA   3081000.0  POLYGON ((-53.37366 -33.76838, -53.65054 -33.2...          BRA                                         Brazil        170.7 cm (5 ft 7 in)   158.8 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                         18+ (N= m:62,037 f:65,696)                                100.0%       Measured       2009         [25][26]                      170.70                Brazil
39    207353391  South America                    Brazil    BRA   3081000.0  POLYGON ((-53.37366 -33.76838, -53.65054 -33.2...          BRA                                 Brazil – Urban    173.5 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)   161.6 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                         20–24 (N= m:6,360 f:6,305)                                 10.9%       Measured       2009             [25]                      173.50                Brazil
40    207353391  South America                    Brazil    BRA   3081000.0  POLYGON ((-53.37366 -33.76838, -53.65054 -33.2...          BRA                                 Brazil – Rural    170.9 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)   158.9 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                         20–24 (N= m:1,939 f:1,633)                                  2.1%       Measured       2009             [25]                      170.90                Brazil
42     11138234  South America                   Bolivia    BOL     78350.0  POLYGON ((-69.52968 -10.95173, -68.78616 -11.0...          BOL                                        Bolivia        160.0 cm (5 ft 3 in)       142.2 cm (4 ft 8 in)                          1.13                                      Aymara, 20–29                                   NaN       Measured       1970             [23]                      160.00               Bolivia
43     31036656  South America                      Peru    PER    410400.0  POLYGON ((-69.89364 -4.29819, -70.79477 -4.251...          PER                                           Peru      164 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)    151 cm (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)                          1.09                                                20+                             0.011509%       Measured       2005             [90]                      164.00                  Peru
44     47698524  South America                  Colombia    COL    688000.0  POLYGON ((-66.87633 1.25336, -67.06505 1.13011...          COL                                       Colombia        170.6 cm (5 ft 7 in)   158.7 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                 18–22 (N= m:1,528,875 f:1,468,110)                                 14.1%       Measured       2002             [33]                      170.60              Colombia
56     67106161         Europe                    France    -99   2699000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-51.65780 4.15623, -52.24934 3...          FRA                                         France        175.6 cm (5 ft 9 in)       162.5 cm (5 ft 4 in)                          1.08                              18–70 (N= m/f:11,562)                                 85.9%       Measured  2003–2004         [45][46]                      175.60                France
57     67106161         Europe                    France    -99   2699000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-51.65780 4.15623, -52.24934 3...          FRA                                         France    174.1 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)   161.9 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                                                20+                                 96.6%       Measured       2001              [7]                      174.10                France
58     16290913  South America                   Ecuador    ECU    182400.0  POLYGON ((-75.37322 -0.15203, -75.23372 -0.911...          ECU                                        Ecuador        167.1 cm (5 ft 6 in)     154.2 cm (5 ft 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                                                NaN                                   NaN       Measured       2014             [40]                      167.10               Ecuador
60      2990561  North America                   Jamaica    JAM     25390.0  POLYGON ((-77.56960 18.49053, -76.89662 18.400...          JAM                                        Jamaica    171.8 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)   160.8 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                                              25–74                                 71.4%       Measured  1994–1996             [66]                      171.80               Jamaica
61     11147407  North America                      Cuba    CUB    132900.0  POLYGON ((-82.26815 23.18861, -81.40446 23.117...          CUB                                   Cuba – Urban          168 cm (5 ft 6 in)     156 cm (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                                                15+                                 79.2%       Measured       1999             [35]                      168.00                  Cuba
66     17885245         Africa                      Mali    MLI     38090.0  POLYGON ((-11.51394 12.44299, -11.46790 12.754...          MLI                           Mali – Southern Mali    171.3 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)       160.4 cm (5 ft 3 in)                          1.07  Rural adults (N= m:121 f:320, SD= m:6.6 cm (2 ...                                   NaN       Measured       1992             [81]                      171.30                  Mali
70    190632261         Africa                   Nigeria    NGA   1089000.0  POLYGON ((2.69170 6.25882, 2.74906 7.87073, 2....          NGA                                        Nigeria    163.8 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)       157.8 cm (5 ft 2 in)                          1.04                                              18–74                                 98.6%       Measured  1994–1996             [66]                      163.80               Nigeria
71    190632261         Africa                   Nigeria    NGA   1089000.0  POLYGON ((2.69170 6.25882, 2.74906 7.87073, 2....          NGA                                        Nigeria        167.2 cm (5 ft 6 in)       160.3 cm (5 ft 3 in)                          1.04  20–29 (N= m:139 f:76, SD= m:6.5 cm (2 1⁄2 in) ...                                 33.2%       Measured       2011             [87]                      167.20               Nigeria
72     24994885         Africa                  Cameroon    CMR     77240.0  POLYGON ((14.49579 12.85940, 14.89336 12.21905...          CMR                               Cameroon – Urban        170.6 cm (5 ft 7 in)   161.3 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.06                           15+ (N= m:3,746 f:5,078)                                 53.6%       Measured       2003             [28]                      170.60              Cameroon
75     27499924         Africa                     Ghana    GHA    120800.0  POLYGON ((0.02380 11.01868, -0.04978 10.70692,...          GHA                                          Ghana    169.5 cm (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)   158.5 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                                              25–29                                 14.7%       Measured  1987–1989             [49]                      169.50                 Ghana
87     19196246         Africa                    Malawi    MWI     21200.0  POLYGON ((32.75938 -9.23060, 33.73972 -9.41715...          MWI                                 Malawi – Urban      166 cm (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)         155 cm (5 ft 1 in)                          1.07  16–60 (N= m:583 f:315, SD= m:6.0 cm (2 1⁄2 in)...                                101.1%       Measured       2000             [78]                      166.00                Malawi
92      8299706           Asia                    Israel    ISR    297000.0  POLYGON ((35.71992 32.70919, 35.54567 32.39399...          ISR                                         Israel      177 cm (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)     166 cm (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                                              18–21                                  9.7%       Measured       2010             [64]                      177.00                Israel
96      2051363         Africa                    Gambia    GMB      3387.0  POLYGON ((-16.71373 13.59496, -15.62460 13.623...          GMB                                 Gambia – Rural        168.0 cm (5 ft 6 in)       157.8 cm (5 ft 2 in)                          1.06  21–49 (N= m:9,559 f:13,160, SD= m:6.7 cm (2 1⁄...                                   NaN       Measured  1950–1974             [47]                      168.00                Gambia
100     6072475           Asia      United Arab Emirates    ARE    667200.0  POLYGON ((51.57952 24.24550, 51.75744 24.29407...          ARE                           United Arab Emirates    173.4 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)   156.4 cm (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)                          1.11                                                NaN                                   NaN            NaN        NaN            [128]                      173.40  United Arab Emirates
101     2314307           Asia                     Qatar    QAT    334500.0  POLYGON ((50.81011 24.75474, 50.74391 25.48242...          QAT                                          Qatar        170.8 cm (5 ft 7 in)   161.1 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.06                                                 18                                  1.9%       Measured       2005         [21][96]                      170.80                 Qatar
103    39192111           Asia                      Iraq    IRQ    596700.0  POLYGON ((39.19547 32.16101, 38.79234 33.37869...          IRQ                                 Iraq – Baghdad        165.4 cm (5 ft 5 in)   155.8 cm (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)                          1.06  18–44 (N= m:700 f:800, SD= m:5.6 cm (2 in) f:1...                                 76.3%       Measured  1999–2000             [61]                      165.40                  Iraq
107    68414135           Asia                  Thailand    THA   1161000.0  POLYGON ((105.21878 14.27321, 104.28142 14.416...          THA                                       Thailand        170.3 cm (5 ft 7 in)     159 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.07  STOU students, 15–19 (N= m:839 f:1,636, SD= m:...                             0.2%[122]  Self-reported       2005            [123]                      170.30              Thailand
110    96160163           Asia                   Vietnam    VNM    594900.0  POLYGON ((104.33433 10.48654, 105.19991 10.889...          VNM                                        Vietnam        162.1 cm (5 ft 4 in)       152.2 cm (5 ft 0 in)                          1.07      25–29 (SD= m:5.39 cm (2 in) f:5.39 cm (2 in))                                 15.9%       Measured  1992–1993             [49]                      162.10               Vietnam
111    96160163           Asia                   Vietnam    VNM    594900.0  POLYGON ((104.33433 10.48654, 105.19991 10.889...          VNM                                        Vietnam        165.7 cm (5 ft 5 in)       155.2 cm (5 ft 1 in)                          1.07  Students, 20–25 (N= m:1,000 f:1,000, SD= m:6.5...                             2.0%[136]       Measured  2006–2007            [137]                      165.70               Vietnam
112    25248140           Asia               North Korea    PRK     40000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((130.78000 42.22001, 130.78000 ...  North Korea                                    North Korea        165.6 cm (5 ft 5 in)       154.9 cm (5 ft 1 in)                          1.07                    Defectors, 20–39 (N= m/f:1,075)                                 46.4%       Measured       2005             [70]                      165.60           North Korea
113    51181299           Asia               South Korea    KOR   1929000.0  POLYGON ((126.17476 37.74969, 126.23734 37.840...  South Korea                                    South Korea        170.7 cm (5 ft 7 in)       157.4 cm (5 ft 2 in)                          1.08  20+ (N= m:2,750 f:2,445, Median= m:170.7 cm (5...                                 96.5%       Measured       2010             [71]                      170.70           South Korea
114    51181299           Asia               South Korea    KOR   1929000.0  POLYGON ((126.17476 37.74969, 126.23734 37.840...  South Korea                                    South Korea    173.5 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)                        NaN                           NaN                   Conscripts, 18–19 (N= m:323,800)                                  3.8%       Measured       2017             [72]                      173.50           South Korea
116     3068243           Asia                  Mongolia    MNG     37000.0  POLYGON ((87.75126 49.29720, 88.80557 49.47052...          MNG                                       Mongolia    168.4 cm (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)       157.7 cm (5 ft 2 in)                          1.07                             25–34 (N= m:158 f:181)                                 27.6%       Measured       2006             [84]                      168.40              Mongolia
117  1281935911           Asia                     India    IND   8721000.0  POLYGON ((97.32711 28.26158, 97.40256 27.88254...          IND                                  India – Urban    174.3 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)   158.5 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.10  Private school students, 18 (N= m:34,411 f:30,...                                   NaN       Measured       2011             [55]                      174.30                 India
118  1281935911           Asia                     India    IND   8721000.0  POLYGON ((97.32711 28.26158, 97.40256 27.88254...          IND                                  India – Rural    161.5 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)       152.5 cm (5 ft 0 in)                          1.06       17 (SD= m:7.0 cm (3 in) f:6.3 cm (2 1⁄2 in))                                   NaN       Measured       2002             [56]                      161.50                 India
119  1281935911           Asia                     India    IND   8721000.0  POLYGON ((97.32711 28.26158, 97.40256 27.88254...          IND                                          India        164.7 cm (5 ft 5 in)       152.6 cm (5 ft 0 in)                          1.08                      20–49 (N= m:69,245 f:118,796)                                 44.3%       Measured  2005-2006             [57]                      164.70                 India
120  1281935911           Asia                     India    IND   8721000.0  POLYGON ((97.32711 28.26158, 97.40256 27.88254...          IND                        India – Patiala, Punjab       177.3 cm (5 ft 10 in)                        NaN                           NaN  Students, Punjabi, 18-25 (N: 149, SD = 7.88 cm...                                 22.4%       Measured       2013             [58]                      177.30                 India
123    29384297           Asia                     Nepal    NPL     71520.0  POLYGON ((88.12044 27.87654, 88.04313 27.44582...          NPL                                          Nepal        163.0 cm (5 ft 4 in)  150.8 cm (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)                           NaN            25–49 (N= f:6,280, SD= f:5.5 cm (2 in))                                 52.9%  Self-reported       2006             [15]                      163.00                 Nepal
129    82021564           Asia                      Iran    IRN   1459000.0  POLYGON ((48.56797 29.92678, 48.01457 30.45246...         Iran                                           Iran        170.3 cm (5 ft 7 in)       157.2 cm (5 ft 2 in)                          1.08  21+ (N= m/f:89,532, SD= m:8.05 cm (3 in) f:7.2...                                 88.1%       Measured       2005             [60]                      170.30                  Iran
132     9960487         Europe                    Sweden    SWE    498100.0  POLYGON ((11.02737 58.85615, 11.46827 59.43239...          SWE                                         Sweden   181.5 cm (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)   166.8 cm (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)                          1.09                                              20–29                                 15.6%       Measured       2008            [116]                      181.50                Sweden
133     9960487         Europe                    Sweden    SWE    498100.0  POLYGON ((11.02737 58.85615, 11.46827 59.43239...          SWE                                         Sweden       177.9 cm (5 ft 10 in)       164.6 cm (5 ft 5 in)                          1.08                                              20–74                                 86.3%  Self-reported  1987–1994            [117]                      177.90                Sweden
136    38476269         Europe                    Poland    POL   1052000.0  POLYGON ((23.48413 53.91250, 23.52754 53.47012...          POL                                         Poland        172.2 cm (5 ft 8 in)       159.4 cm (5 ft 3 in)                          1.07                          44-69 (N= m:4336 f: 4559)                                 39.4%       Measured       2007             [93]                      172.20                Poland
137    38476269         Europe                    Poland    POL   1052000.0  POLYGON ((23.48413 53.91250, 23.52754 53.47012...          POL                                         Poland   178.7 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)       165.1 cm (5 ft 5 in)                          1.08                              18 (N= m:846 f:1,126)                                  1.6%       Measured       2010             [94]                      178.70                Poland
138     8754413         Europe                   Austria    AUT    416600.0  POLYGON ((16.97967 48.12350, 16.90375 47.71487...          AUT                                        Austria     179 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)     166 cm (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                                              20–49                                 54.3%       Measured       2006             [17]                      179.00               Austria
139     9850845         Europe                   Hungary    HUN    267600.0  POLYGON ((22.08561 48.42226, 22.64082 48.15024...          HUN                                        Hungary      176 cm (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)     164 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                                             Adults                                   NaN       Measured      2000s             [53]                      176.00               Hungary
140     9850845         Europe                   Hungary    HUN    267600.0  POLYGON ((22.08561 48.42226, 22.64082 48.15024...          HUN                                        Hungary       177.3 cm (5 ft 10 in)                        NaN                           NaN          18 (N= m:1,080, SD= m:5.99 cm (2 1⁄2 in))                                  1.7%       Measured       2005             [54]                      177.30               Hungary
142    21529967         Europe                   Romania    ROU    441000.0  POLYGON ((28.23355 45.48828, 28.67978 45.30403...          ROU                                        Romania      172 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)         157 cm (5 ft 2 in)                          1.10                                                NaN                                   NaN       Measured       2007             [97]                      172.00               Romania
143     2823859         Europe                 Lithuania    LTU     85620.0  POLYGON ((26.49433 55.61511, 26.58828 55.16718...          LTU                              Lithuania – Urban       178.4 cm (5 ft 10 in)                        NaN                           NaN  Conscripts, 19–25 (N= m:91 SD= m:6.7 cm (2 1⁄2...                                  9.9%       Measured   2005[75]             [76]                      178.40             Lithuania
144     2823859         Europe                 Lithuania    LTU     85620.0  POLYGON ((26.49433 55.61511, 26.58828 55.16718...          LTU                              Lithuania – Rural    176.2 cm (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)                        NaN                           NaN  Conscripts, 19–25 (N= m:106 SD= m:5.9 cm (2 1⁄...                                  4.9%       Measured   2005[75]             [76]                      176.20             Lithuania
145     2823859         Europe                 Lithuania    LTU     85620.0  POLYGON ((26.49433 55.61511, 26.58828 55.16718...          LTU                                      Lithuania   181.3 cm (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)       167.5 cm (5 ft 6 in)                          1.08                                                 18                                  2.1%       Measured       2001             [77]                      181.30             Lithuania
147     1251581         Europe                   Estonia    EST     38700.0  POLYGON ((27.98113 59.47537, 27.98112 59.47537...          EST                                        Estonia   179.1 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)                        NaN                           NaN                                                 17                                  2.3%       Measured       2003             [42]                      179.10               Estonia
148    80594017         Europe                   Germany    DEU   3979000.0  POLYGON ((14.11969 53.75703, 14.35332 53.24817...          DEU                                        Germany        175.4 cm (5 ft 9 in)       162.8 cm (5 ft 4 in)                          1.08                              18–79 (N= m/f:19,768)                                 94.3%       Measured       2007              [6]                      175.40               Germany
149    80594017         Europe                   Germany    DEU   3979000.0  POLYGON ((14.11969 53.75703, 14.35332 53.24817...          DEU                                        Germany         178 cm (5 ft 10 in)         165 cm (5 ft 5 in)                          1.08                         18+ (N= m:25,112 f:25,560)                                100.0%  Self-reported       2009             [48]                      178.00               Germany
150     7101510         Europe                  Bulgaria    BGR    143100.0  POLYGON ((22.65715 44.23492, 22.94483 43.82379...          BGR                                       Bulgaria        175.2 cm (5 ft 9 in)   163.2 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                                                NaN                                   NaN            NaN       2010             [27]                      175.20              Bulgaria
151    10768477         Europe                    Greece    GRC    290500.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((26.29000 35.29999, 26.16500 35...          GRC                                         Greece      177 cm (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)         165 cm (5 ft 5 in)                          1.07                                              18–49                                 56.3%       Measured       2003             [17]                      177.00                Greece
152    80845215           Asia                    Turkey    TUR   1670000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((44.77268 37.17044, 44.29345 37...          TUR                                         Turkey    173.6 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)   161.9 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                             20-22 (N= m:322 f:247)                                  8.3%       Measured       2007    [11][21][125]                      173.60                Turkey
153    80845215           Asia                    Turkey    TUR   1670000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((44.77268 37.17044, 44.29345 37...          TUR                                Turkey – Ankara    174.1 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)   158.9 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.10  18–59 (N= m:703 f:512, Median= m:169.7 cm (5 f...                             5.1%[126]       Measured  2004–2006            [127]                      174.10                Turkey
155     3047987         Europe                   Albania    ALB     33900.0  POLYGON ((21.02004 40.84273, 20.99999 40.58000...          ALB                                        Albania    174.0 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)   161.8 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                           20–29 (N= m:649 f:1,806)                                 23.5%       Measured  2008–2009         [11][12]                      174.00               Albania
156     4292095         Europe                   Croatia    HRV     94240.0  POLYGON ((16.56481 46.50375, 16.88252 46.38063...          HRV                                        Croatia       180.4 cm (5 ft 11 in)  166.49 cm (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)                          1.09  18 (N= m:358 f:360, SD= m:6.8 cm (2 1⁄2 in) f:...                                  1.6%       Measured  2006–2008             [34]                      180.40               Croatia
157     8236303         Europe               Switzerland    CHE    496300.0  POLYGON ((9.59423 47.52506, 9.63293 47.34760, ...          CHE                                    Switzerland       178.2 cm (5 ft 10 in)                        NaN                           NaN  Conscripts, 19 (N= m:12,447, Median= m:178.0 c...                                  1.5%       Measured       2009            [118]                      178.20           Switzerland
158     8236303         Europe               Switzerland    CHE    496300.0  POLYGON ((9.59423 47.52506, 9.63293 47.34760, ...          CHE                                    Switzerland        175.4 cm (5 ft 9 in)     164 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                                              20–74                                 88.8%  Self-reported  1987–1994            [117]                      175.40           Switzerland
160    11491346         Europe                   Belgium    BEL    508600.0  POLYGON ((6.15666 50.80372, 6.04307 50.12805, ...          BEL                                        Belgium   178.6 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)       168.1 cm (5 ft 6 in)                          1.06  21 (N= m:20–49 f:20–49, SD= m:6.6 cm (2 1⁄2 in...                                  1.7%  Self-reported       2001             [22]                      178.60               Belgium
161    17084719         Europe               Netherlands    NLD    870800.0  POLYGON ((6.90514 53.48216, 7.09205 53.14404, ...          NLD                                    Netherlands       180.8 cm (5 ft 11 in)       167.5 cm (5 ft 6 in)                          1.08                                                20+                                 96.8%  Self-reported       2013      [9][26][86]                      180.80           Netherlands
162    10839514         Europe                  Portugal    PRT    297100.0  POLYGON ((-9.03482 41.88057, -8.67195 42.13469...          PRT                                       Portugal    173.9 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)                        NaN                           NaN                                      18 (N= m:696)                                  1.5%       Measured       2008         [11][95]                      173.90              Portugal
163    10839514         Europe                  Portugal    PRT    297100.0  POLYGON ((-9.03482 41.88057, -8.67195 42.13469...          PRT                                       Portugal      171 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)     161 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.06                                              20–50                                 56.7%  Self-reported       2001             [17]                      171.00              Portugal
164    10839514         Europe                  Portugal    PRT    297100.0  POLYGON ((-9.03482 41.88057, -8.67195 42.13469...          PRT                                       Portugal    173.7 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)   163.7 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)                          1.06  21 (N= m:87 f:106, SD= m:8.2 cm (3 in) f:5.3 c...                                  1.9%  Self-reported       2001             [22]                      173.70              Portugal
165    48958159         Europe                     Spain    ESP   1690000.0  POLYGON ((-7.45373 37.09779, -7.53711 37.42890...          ESP                                          Spain        173.1 cm (5 ft 8 in)                        NaN                           NaN                       18–70 (N= m:1,298 [s][112] )                                 88.2%       Measured  2013–2014       [113][114]                      173.10                 Spain
167    48958159         Europe                     Spain    ESP   1690000.0  POLYGON ((-7.45373 37.09779, -7.53711 37.42890...          ESP                                          Spain      174 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)         163 cm (5 ft 4 in)                          1.07                                              20–49                                 57.0%  Self-reported       2007             [17]                      174.00                 Spain
168     5011102         Europe                   Ireland    IRL    322000.0  POLYGON ((-6.19788 53.86757, -6.03299 53.15316...          IRL                                        Ireland      177 cm (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)         163 cm (5 ft 4 in)                          1.09                                              20–49                                 61.8%       Measured       2007             [17]                      177.00               Ireland
169     5011102         Europe                   Ireland    IRL    322000.0  POLYGON ((-6.19788 53.86757, -6.03299 53.15316...          IRL                                        Ireland     179 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)         165 cm (5 ft 5 in)                          1.08                                                 18                                     -       Measured       2014         [62][63]                      179.00               Ireland
172     4510327        Oceania               New Zealand    NZL    174800.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((176.88582 -40.06598, 176.50802...          NZL                                    New Zealand      177 cm (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)     164 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                                              20–49                                 56.9%       Measured       2007             [17]                      177.00           New Zealand
173    23232413        Oceania                 Australia    AUS   1189000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((147.68926 -40.80826, 148.28907...          AUS                                      Australia        175.6 cm (5 ft 9 in)   161.8 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.09                                                18+                                100.0%       Measured  2011–2012             [16]                      175.60             Australia
174    22409381           Asia                 Sri Lanka    LKA    236700.0  POLYGON ((81.78796 7.52306, 81.63732 6.48178, ...          LKA                                      Sri Lanka    163.6 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)  151.4 cm (4 ft 11 1⁄2 in)                          1.08  18+ (N= m:1,768 f:2,709, SD= m:6.9 cm (2 1⁄2 i...                                100.0%       Measured  2005–2006            [111]                      163.60             Sri Lanka
175  1379302771           Asia                     China    CHN  21140000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((109.47521 18.19770, 108.65521 ...          CHN                                          China    169.5 cm (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)       158.0 cm (5 ft 2 in)                          1.07                                  18-69 (N=172,422)                                 76.8%       Measured       2014             [31]                      169.50                 China
176  1379302771           Asia                     China    CHN  21140000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((109.47521 18.19770, 108.65521 ...          CHN                        China – Beijing – Urban        175.2 cm (5 ft 9 in)       162.6 cm (5 ft 4 in)                          1.08                         Urban, 18 (N= m:448 f:405)                                  0.5%       Measured       2011             [32]                      175.20                 China
177    23508428           Asia                    Taiwan    TWN   1127000.0  POLYGON ((121.77782 24.39427, 121.17563 22.790...          TWN                                         Taiwan    171.4 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)       159.9 cm (5 ft 3 in)                          1.07                                17 (N= m:200 f:200)                                  1.7%       Measured       2011  [119][120][121]                      171.40                Taiwan
178    62137802         Europe                     Italy    ITA   2221000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((10.44270 46.89355, 11.04856 46...          ITA                                          Italy    176.5 cm (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)       162.5 cm (5 ft 4 in)                          1.09                                                 18                                  1.4%       Measured  1999–2004     [11][21][65]                      176.50                 Italy
179    62137802         Europe                     Italy    ITA   2221000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((10.44270 46.89355, 11.04856 46...          ITA                                          Italy       177.2 cm (5 ft 10 in)       167.8 cm (5 ft 6 in)                          1.06  21 (N= m:106 f:92, SD= m:6.0 cm (2 1⁄2 in) f:6...                                  1.4%  Self-reported       2001             [22]                      177.20                 Italy
180     5605948         Europe                   Denmark    DNK    264800.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((9.92191 54.98310, 9.28205 54.8...          DNK                                        Denmark       180.4 cm (5 ft 11 in)       167.2 cm (5 ft 6 in)                           NaN                    Conscripts, 18–20 (N= m:38,025)                                  5.3%       Measured       2012             [37]                      180.40               Denmark
181    64769452         Europe            United Kingdom    GBR   2788000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-6.19788 53.86757, -6.95373 54...          GBR                       United Kingdom – England        175.3 cm (5 ft 9 in)   161.9 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                           16+ (N= m:3,154 f:3,956)                           103.2%[129]       Measured       2012              [5]                      175.30        United Kingdom
182    64769452         Europe            United Kingdom    GBR   2788000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-6.19788 53.86757, -6.95373 54...          GBR                      United Kingdom – Scotland        175.0 cm (5 ft 9 in)   161.3 cm (5 ft 3 1⁄2 in)                          1.08  16+ (N= m:2,512 f:3,180, Median= m:174.8 cm (5...                           103.0%[129]       Measured       2008            [130]                      175.00        United Kingdom
183    64769452         Europe            United Kingdom    GBR   2788000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((-6.19788 53.86757, -6.95373 54...          GBR                         United Kingdom – Wales    177.0 cm (5 ft 9 1⁄2 in)       162.0 cm (5 ft 4 in)                          1.09                                                16+                           103.2%[129]  Self-reported       2009            [131]                      177.00        United Kingdom
184      339747         Europe                   Iceland    ISL     16150.0  POLYGON ((-14.50870 66.45589, -14.73964 65.808...          ISL                                        Iceland     181 cm (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)         168 cm (5 ft 6 in)                          1.08                                              20–49                                 43.6%  Self-reported       2007             [17]                      181.00               Iceland
185     9961396           Asia                Azerbaijan    AZE    167900.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((46.40495 41.86068, 46.68607 41...          AZE                                     Azerbaijan    171.8 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)       165.4 cm (5 ft 5 in)                          1.04                                                16+                                106.5%       Measured       2005             [18]                      171.80            Azerbaijan
187   104256076           Asia               Philippines    PHL    801900.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((120.83390 12.70450, 120.32344 ...          PHL                                    Philippines    163.5 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)       151.8 cm (5 ft 0 in)                          1.08                                              20–39                             31.5%[91]       Measured       2003             [92]                      163.50           Philippines
188    31381992           Asia                  Malaysia    MYS    863000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((100.08576 6.46449, 100.25960 6...          MYS                                       Malaysia    166.3 cm (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)       154.7 cm (5 ft 1 in)                          1.07  Malay, 20–24 (N= m:749 f:893, Median= m:166 cm...                              9.7%[79]       Measured       1996             [80]                      166.30              Malaysia
189    31381992           Asia                  Malaysia    MYS    863000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((100.08576 6.46449, 100.25960 6...          MYS                                       Malaysia    168.5 cm (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)       158.1 cm (5 ft 2 in)                          1.07  Chinese, 20–24 (N= m:407 f:453, Median= m:169 ...                              4.1%[79]       Measured       1996             [80]                      168.50              Malaysia
190    31381992           Asia                  Malaysia    MYS    863000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((100.08576 6.46449, 100.25960 6...          MYS                                       Malaysia    169.1 cm (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)       155.4 cm (5 ft 1 in)                          1.09  Indian, 20–24 (N= m:113 f:140, Median= m:168 c...                              1.2%[79]       Measured       1996             [80]                      169.10              Malaysia
191    31381992           Asia                  Malaysia    MYS    863000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((100.08576 6.46449, 100.25960 6...          MYS                                       Malaysia    163.3 cm (5 ft 4 1⁄2 in)       151.9 cm (5 ft 0 in)                          1.08  Other indigenous, 20–24 (N= m:257 f:380, Media...                              0.4%[79]       Measured       1996             [80]                      163.30              Malaysia
193     1972126         Europe                  Slovenia    SVN     68350.0  POLYGON ((13.80648 46.50931, 14.63247 46.43182...          SVN                           Slovenia – Ljubljana       180.3 cm (5 ft 11 in)       167.4 cm (5 ft 6 in)                          1.08                                                 19                             0.2%[108]       Measured       2011            [109]                      180.30              Slovenia
194     5491218         Europe                   Finland    FIN    224137.0  POLYGON ((28.59193 69.06478, 28.44594 68.36461...          FIN                                        Finland   178.9 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)       165.3 cm (5 ft 5 in)                          1.08                               25–34 (N= m/f:2,305)                                 19.0%       Measured       1994             [43]                      178.90               Finland
195     5491218         Europe                   Finland    FIN    224137.0  POLYGON ((28.59193 69.06478, 28.44594 68.36461...          FIN                                        Finland       180.7 cm (5 ft 11 in)       167.2 cm (5 ft 6 in)                          1.08                                −25 (N= m/f:26,636)                                  9.2%       Measured  2010–2011         [43][44]                      180.70               Finland
196     5445829         Europe                  Slovakia    SVK    168800.0  POLYGON ((22.55814 49.08574, 22.28084 48.82539...          SVK                                       Slovakia   179.4 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)       165.6 cm (5 ft 5 in)                          1.08                                                 18                                  2.0%       Measured       2004            [107]                      179.40              Slovakia
197    10674723         Europe                   Czechia    CZE    350900.0  POLYGON ((15.01700 51.10667, 15.49097 50.78473...          CZE                                 Czech Republic       180.3 cm (5 ft 11 in)      167.22 cm (5 ft 6 in)                          1.08                                                 17                                  1.6%       Measured       2001             [36]                      180.30        Czech Republic
199   126451398           Asia                     Japan    JPN   4932000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((141.88460 39.18086, 140.95949 ...          JPN                                          Japan      172 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)         158 cm (5 ft 2 in)                          1.08                                              20–49                                 47.2%       Measured       2005             [17]                      172.00                 Japan
200   126451398           Asia                     Japan    JPN   4932000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((141.88460 39.18086, 140.95949 ...          JPN                                          Japan    172.0 cm (5 ft 7 1⁄2 in)  158.70 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.08  20–24 (N= m:1,708 f:1,559, SD= m:5.42 cm (2 in...                                  7.2%       Measured       2004             [67]                      172.00                 Japan
201   126451398           Asia                     Japan    JPN   4932000.0  MULTIPOLYGON (((141.88460 39.18086, 140.95949 ...          JPN                                          Japan        170.7 cm (5 ft 7 in)       158.0 cm (5 ft 2 in)                          1.08                                                 17                                  1.2%       Measured       2013             [68]                      170.70                 Japan
204    28571770           Asia              Saudi Arabia    SAU   1731000.0  POLYGON ((34.95604 29.35655, 36.06894 29.19749...          SAU                                   Saudi Arabia    168.9 cm (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)   156.3 cm (5 ft 1 1⁄2 in)                          1.08                                                 18                                  3.0%       Measured       2010        [21][100]                      168.90          Saudi Arabia
205    28571770           Asia              Saudi Arabia    SAU   1731000.0  POLYGON ((34.95604 29.35655, 36.06894 29.19749...          SAU                                   Saudi Arabia      174 cm (5 ft 8 1⁄2 in)                        NaN                           NaN                                                NaN                                   NaN            NaN       2017            [101]                      174.00          Saudi Arabia
210    97041072         Africa                     Egypt    EGY   1105000.0  POLYGON ((36.86623 22.00000, 32.90000 22.00000...          EGY                                          Egypt        170.3 cm (5 ft 7 in)   158.9 cm (5 ft 2 1⁄2 in)                          1.07                           20–24 (N= m:845 f:1,059)                                 16.6%       Measured       2008             [41]                      170.30                 Egypt
220     7111024         Europe                    Serbia    SRB    101800.0  POLYGON ((18.82982 45.90887, 18.82984 45.90888...          SRB                                         Serbia   182.0 cm (5 ft 11 1⁄2 in)   166.8 cm (5 ft 5 1⁄2 in)                          1.09  Students at UNS,18–30 (N= m:318 f:76, SD= m:6....                             0.7%[102]       Measured       2012            [103]                      182.00                Serbia
221      642550         Europe                Montenegro    MNE     10610.0  POLYGON ((20.07070 42.58863, 19.80161 42.50009...          MNE                                     Montenegro        183.4 cm (6 ft 0 in)   169.4 cm (5 ft 6 1⁄2 in)                          1.09  17-20 (N= m:981 f:1107, SD= m:6.89 cm (2 1⁄2 i...                                  5.2%       Measured       2017             [85]                      183.40            Montenegro
222     1895250         Europe                    Kosovo    -99     18490.0  POLYGON ((20.59025 41.85541, 20.52295 42.21787...       Kosovo                             Kosovo – Prishtina  179.52 cm (5 ft 10 1⁄2 in)      165.72 cm (5 ft 5 in)                           NaN  Conscripts, 18-20 (N= m:830 f:793, SD= m:7.02 ...                                 63.0%       Measured       2017             [74]                      179.52                Kosovo
```

Also, notice that we also removed the rows, which has no Average male height.

## Step 5: Create the map with our data

Now we have done all the hard work.

It is time to use folium to do the last piece of work.

Let’s put it all together.

```import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import folium
import geopandas
import pycountry

# Helper function to map country names to alpha_3 representation - though some are not known by library
def lookup_country_code(country):
try:
return pycountry.countries.lookup(country).alpha_3
except LookupError:
return country

# The URL we will read our data from
url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Average_human_height_by_country'
# read_html returns a list of tables from the URL

# The data is in the first table
table = tables[0]

# To avoid writing it all the time
AVG_MH = 'Average male height'
CR = 'Country/Region'
COUNTRY = 'Country'
AMH_F = 'Aveage male height (float)'
A3 = 'alpha3'

# Remove duplicate rows with 'Average male height'
table = table.loc[table[AVG_MH] != AVG_MH].copy()

# Clean up data to have height in cm
table[AMH_F] = table.apply(lambda row: float(row[AVG_MH].split(' ')[0]) if row[AVG_MH] is not np.nan else np.nan,
axis=1)

# Clean up the names if used a dash before
table[COUNTRY] = table.apply(
lambda row: row[CR].split(' – ')[0] if ' – ' in row[CR] else row[CR],
axis=1)
# Map the country name to the alpha3 representation
table[A3] = table.apply(lambda row: lookup_country_code(row[COUNTRY]), axis=1)

# Do the same mapping to alpha3
world[A3] = world.apply(lambda row: lookup_country_code(row['name']), axis=1)

# Merge the data
table = world.merge(table, how="left", left_on=[A3], right_on=[A3])

# Remove countries with no data
table = table.dropna(subset=[AMH_F])

# Creating a map
my_map = folium.Map()

# Adding the data from our table
folium.Choropleth(
geo_data=table,
name='choropleth',
data=table,
columns=[A3, AMH_F],
key_on='feature.properties.alpha3',
fill_color='YlGn',
fill_opacity=0.7,
line_opacity=0.2,
legend_name='Male height'
# Save the map to an html file
my_map.save('height_map.html')
```

Which should result in a map like this you can use in your browser. Zoom in and out.

This is nice. Good job.

## What will this tutorial cover

• Pandas has a built-in library function to read html tables directly. The library call depends on other libraries, which needs to be installed first.
• Often data needs to be cleaned and transformed into the right format to proceed with processing.
• Finally, we will group the data and count occurrences and sum up a value attribute.

We will cover all that with real life example by using an example of a table from a wikipedia page.

## Step 1: What you need to get started

First of, you need to install the pandas library, which can be done by using pip.

```pip install pandas
```

Using the read_html call (with will read the URL argument, parse the data from all tables and return them) from the library need installation of further supporting libraries. If you run this example.

```import pandas as pd

url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_elevator_accidents'

print(tables)
```

You will get the following error.

```Traceback (most recent call last):
return _parse(
File "/Users/admin/PycharmProjects/MyLearningSpace/venv/lib/python3.8/site-packages/pandas/io/html.py", line 891, in _parse
parser = _parser_dispatch(flav)
File "/Users/admin/PycharmProjects/MyLearningSpace/venv/lib/python3.8/site-packages/pandas/io/html.py", line 848, in _parser_dispatch
```

Which states you also need to install the lxml library to use the call. You can install that by.

```pip install lxml.
```

The lxml library is the most feature-rich and easy-to-use library for processing XML and HTML in the Python language.

Then you should get the expected result.

The read_html call returns a list of DataFrames.

Hence you can see how many by the following code.

```import pandas as pd

url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_elevator_accidents'

print(len(tables))
```

Which tells you it contains 9 (at the time of writing – changes happens to wikipedia pages).

In this tutorial we are interested in the main table on the page, which you can find in the first entry (at the time of writing).

Hence, you can access the DataFrame through this code.

```import pandas as pd

url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_elevator_accidents'

table = tables[0]
```

## Step 2: Clean data to prepare it for sum and count

The next thing you want to do is to use the values in the table. First thing you notice is, that you both need to clean and cast values.

Let’s say you want to organize the data into countries. This can be done by help of Lambda function. Also see this tutorial if you are new to Lambda functions.

```import pandas as pd

url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_elevator_accidents'

table = tables[0]

table['Country'] = table.apply(lambda row: row['Location'].split(', ')[-1], axis=1)
```

Where the magic last line will add a new column to the data with the country in it.

```               Deaths Injuries  ...                       Location       Country
0  200-400 (estimate)        1  ...  New York City, New York, U.S.          U.S.
1                 104        0  ...           Orkney, South Africa  South Africa
2                  52        0  ...           Welkom, South Africa  South Africa
3                  19        0  ...                   Wuhan, China         China
4                  19        1  ...                 Leigh, England       England
```

As you see, it uses the split on Location and only adds the last value, the country itself.

Next up, you see that if we want to sum up the deaths by country we need to make a decisions, as some are in intervals. For this purpose, we are conservative and take the lower bound of it.

```import pandas as pd

url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_elevator_accidents'

table = tables[0]

table['Country'] = table.apply(lambda row: row['Location'].split(', ')[-1], axis=1)
table['Deaths (clean)'] = table.apply(lambda row: int(row['Deaths']) if row['Deaths'].isdigit() else int(row['Deaths'].split('-')[0]), axis=1)
```

Which results in the following.

```               Deaths Injuries  ...       Country Deaths (clean)
0  200-400 (estimate)        1  ...          U.S.           200
1                 104        0  ...  South Africa           104
2                  52        0  ...  South Africa            52
3                  19        0  ...         China            19
4                  19        1  ...       England            19
```

Also notice, that the Deaths (clean) column is converted to an int by the lambda function.

## Step 3: Count and sum by country

Now we need to group it by Country first to get the sum of deaths and then count of how many accidents were there.

```import pandas as pd

url = 'https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_elevator_accidents'

table = tables[0]

table['Country'] = table.apply(lambda row: row['Location'].split(', ')[-1], axis=1)
table['Death (clean)'] = table.apply(lambda row: int(row['Deaths']) if row['Deaths'].isdigit() else int(row['Deaths'].split('-')[0]), axis=1)

country = table.groupby('Country').count()[['Location']].sort_values(by='Location', ascending=False)
country = country.rename(columns={'Location': 'Events'})
country['Total Deaths'] = table.groupby('Country')['Death (clean)'].sum()
```

Which will result in the following.

```                         Events  Total Deaths
Country
U.S.                         13           239
China                         5            55
England                       3            41
Spain                         2             9
South Korea                   2             8
South Africa                  2           156
Brazil                        2            13
Australia                     1             4
Netherlands                   1             2
Turkey                        1            10
Pakistan                      1             6
Iran                          1             6
Mogok Township. Myanmar       1             6
India                         1             6
Hong Kong                     1            12
Germany                       1            10
Cambodia                      1             4
Ukraine                       1            11
```

That is it.

## What will we cover in this tutorial

A high level view of the differences of NumPy and Pandas libraries in Python. We will also make a short exploration of the performance differences in a specific use case.

## Top level differences between NumPy and Pandas

First of all, the purpose of these libraries are different.

• NumPy is made to manage n-dimensional numerical data. Think of it if you need to handle a lot of data all of the same type and numerical, but categorized in columns and rows.
• Pandas is made for tabular data. This could be data from an excel sheet, where you have various types of data categorized in rows and columns.

There are more differences.

• NumPy consist of the data type ndarray, which is create with fixed dimensions with only one element type.
• Pandas consist of Series and DataFrames, which are more dynamic after creation.

## Performance comparison of NumPy and Pandas

If you should guess? Pandas? Of course not. NumPy is great magnitude faster than Pandas.

Why?

Let us first examine it.

```import time
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd

size = 100
iterations = 100000000//size

a = np.arange(size)
start = time.time()
for _ in range(iterations): a2 = a * a
end = time.time()
print(end - start)

n = pd.Series(a)
start = time.time()
for _ in range(iterations): n2 = n * n
end = time.time()
print(end - start)
```

Which results in the following comparison.

I find it very interesting that the speed is so slow for small instances of Pandas, comparing to NumPy, while later it seems to go to Pandas advantage, but eventually it still seems to be NumPy.

Well, the flexibility of Pandas has a cost, which is high for small instances when making arithmetic operations as we did in the above example.

## Next steps

Investigate further how NumPy and Pandas compare in performance for various functions.

Pandas and NumPy support a lot of functions in a vectorized way, which could be interesting to investigate. Do the restrictions of NumPy arrays give the underlying C/C++ code an advantage in performance?

## What will we cover

• The easy way visualize financial data with Python
• How to fetch data from stocks in Python
• The easy way to visualize it on a plot
• How to enrich the data with valuable analysis

## Step 1: Fetch the data on your favorite stock

As with most things in Python, somebody made an easy to use library to do all the hard work for you. This is also true if you want to visualize financial data with Python.

The Pandas datareader library lets you fetch financial data from various sources and return them in a Pandas Dataframe.

If you do not know what a Dataframe from Pandas is, do not worry. We will cover the necessary here.

The full list data sources available can be found here, but include Tiingo, IEX, Alpha Vantage, Enigma, Quandl, St.Louis FED (FRED), Kenneth French’s data library, World Bank, and many more.

```import pandas_datareader as pdr
import datetime

aapl = pdr.get_data_yahoo('AAPL',
start=datetime.datetime(2010, 1, 1),
end=datetime.datetime(2020, 1, 1))

```

Which will result in 10 years of data from Apple. See below.

```                 High        Low  ...       Volume  Adj Close
Date                              ...
2010-01-04  30.642857  30.340000  ...  123432400.0  26.466835
2010-01-05  30.798571  30.464285  ...  150476200.0  26.512596
2010-01-06  30.747143  30.107143  ...  138040000.0  26.090879
2010-01-07  30.285715  29.864286  ...  119282800.0  26.042646
2010-01-08  30.285715  29.865715  ...  111902700.0  26.215786
```

For each bank day you will be presented with the following data.

```High         2.936800e+02
Low          2.895200e+02
Open         2.899300e+02
Close        2.936500e+02
Volume       2.520140e+07
Name: 2019-12-31 00:00:00, dtype: float64
```
• High: The highest price traded during that day.
• Low: The lowest price traded during that day.
• Open: The opening price that day.
• Close: The closing price that day, that is the price of the last trade that day.
• Volume: The number of shares that exchange hands for the stock that day.
• Adj Close: It accurately reflect the stock’s value after accounting for any corporate actions. It is considered to be the true price of that stock and is often used when examining historical returns.

As you can see, to make further infestations on the data, you should use the Adj Close.

## Step 2: Visualize the data

This is where Dataframes come in handy. They integrate easy with matplotlib, which is a comprehensive library for creating static, animated, and interactive visualizations in Python.

```import pandas_datareader as pdr
import datetime
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

aapl = pdr.get_data_yahoo('AAPL',
start=datetime.datetime(2010, 1, 1),
end=datetime.datetime(2020, 1, 1))

plt.show()
```

Will result in a graph like this.

That was easy.

You can see further ways to visualize the data in the documentation here.

## Step 3: Enrich the data

That is another great advantage of Dataframes, it is easy to enrich it with valuable data.

A good example is to enrich the data with running mean values of the stock price.

```import pandas_datareader as pdr
import datetime
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt

aapl = pdr.get_data_yahoo('AAPL',
start=datetime.datetime(2015, 1, 1),
end=datetime.datetime(2020, 1, 1))

aapl[['Adj Close', 'Mean Short', 'Mean Long']].plot()
plt.show()
```

Which will result in the following graph.

Now that was simple. The code simple rolls the window of 20 (or 100) days and sets the average (mean) value of that. This kind of analysis is used to see the average trend of the stock. Also, to see when the short term trend (20 days) is crossing the long term trend (100 days).

A simple trading strategy is decides on to buy and sell based on when these averages crosses. This strategy is called dual moving average crossover. You can read more about it here.

A volatility analysis is used to see how “stable” the share is. The higher the volatility value is, the riskier it is.

```import pandas_datareader as pdr
import datetime
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np

aapl = pdr.get_data_yahoo('AAPL',
start=datetime.datetime(2015, 1, 1),
end=datetime.datetime(2020, 1, 1))

daily_close = aapl['Close']
daily_pc = daily_close.pct_change()

# See the volatibility
vol = daily_pc.rolling(75).std()*np.sqrt(75)
vol.plot()
plt.show()
```

Which results in the following graph.

This is a good indication on how risky the stock is.

## Conclusion

This is just a simple introduction to how to retrieve financial stock data in Python and visualize it. Also, how easy it is to enrich it with more valuable analysis.

There are so much more to explore and learn about it.