What will we cover?
In this lesson we will learn about Unsupervised learning.
- Understand how Unsupervised Learning is different from Supervised Learning
- How it can organize data without knowledge
- Understand how k-Means Clustering works
- Train a 𝑘-Means Cluster model
Step 1: What is Unsupervised Learning?
Machine Learning is often divided into 3 main categories.
- Supervised: where you tell the algorithm what categories each data item is in. Each data item from the training set is tagged with the right answer.
- Unsupervised: is when the learning algorithm is not told what to do with it and it should make the structure itself.
- Reinforcement: teaches the machine to think for itself based on past action rewards.
Where we see that Unsupervised is one of the main groups.
Unsupervised learning is a type of algorithm that learns patterns from untagged data. The hope is that through mimicry, which is an important mode of learning in people, the machine is forced to build a compact internal representation of its world and then generate imaginative content from it. In contrast to supervised learning where data is tagged by an expert, e.g. as a “ball” or “fish”, unsupervised methods exhibit self-organization that captures patterns as probability densities…https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Unsupervised_learning
Step 2: k-Means Clustering
What is clustering?
Organize a set of objects into groups in such a way that similar objects tend to be in the same group.
What is k-Means Clustering?
Algorithm for clustering data based on repeatedly assigning points to clusters and updating those clusters’ centers.
- First we chose random cluster centroids (hollow point), then assign points to neareast centroid.
- Then we update the centroid to be centered to the points.
This can be repeated a specific number of times or until only small change in centroids positions.
Step 3: Create an Example
Let’s create some random data to demonstrate it.
import numpy as np import pandas as pd from sklearn.cluster import KMeans import matplotlib.pyplot as plt # Generate some numbers data = np.random.randn(400,2) data[:100] += 5, 5 data[100:200] += 10, 10 data[200:300] += 10, 5 data[300:] += 5, 10 fig, ax = plt.subplots() ax.scatter(x=data[:,0], y=data[:,1]) plt.show()
This shows some random data in 4 clusters.
Then the following code demonstrates how it works. You can change max_iter to be the number iteration – try to do it for 1, 2, 3, etc.
model = KMeans(n_clusters=4, init='random', random_state=42, max_iter=10, n_init=1) model.fit(data) y_pred = model.predict(data) fig, ax = plt.subplots() ax.scatter(x=data[:,0], y=data[:,1], c=y_pred) ax.scatter(x=model.cluster_centers_[:,0], y=model.cluster_centers_[:,1], c='r') plt.show()
Want to learn more?
This is part of a FREE 10h Machine Learning course with Python.
- 15 video lessons – which explain Machine Learning concepts, demonstrate models on real data, introduce projects and show a solution (YouTube playlist).
- 30 JuPyter Notebooks – with the full code and explanation from the lectures and projects (GitHub).
- 15 projects – with step guides to help you structure your solutions and solution explained in the end of video lessons (GitHub).