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# How To Color Cells Dynamically in Excel Based of Formula done from Python

## What will we cover in this tutorial?

We will learn how you can dynamically format the cells in Excel to have a specific color based on the value of a function – all done from Python.

As an example we will color the cells of two columns depending on which is larger.

In this concrete example we will collect historical stock prices and calculate the Moving Averages of 50 and 200 days on the closing price. In a crossover way to utilize moving averages, you would send a buy-signal when the 50-day moving average crosses above the 200-day moving average and a sell-signal if the other way around.

## Step 1: Collect the data from Yahoo! Finance using Pandas-datareader

A great library to use to collect financial data is the Pandas-datareader.

We will collect data from Yahoo! Finance. As an example we will use General Motors historical stock data.

This can be done as follows.

```import pandas_datareader as pdr
import datetime as dt

start = dt.datetime(2019, 1, 1)
ticker = pdr.get_data_yahoo("GM", start)
```

This will result in a Pandas DataFrame with data similar to this.

```                 High        Low       Open      Close      Volume  Adj Close
Date
2019-01-02  33.810001  32.410000  32.849998  33.639999   7662300.0  31.893360
2019-01-03  33.680000  32.200001  33.340000  32.250000  11618300.0  30.575533
2019-01-04  33.570000  32.430000  32.799999  33.330002  10784000.0  31.599455
2019-01-07  34.970001  33.480000  33.709999  34.360001  10722300.0  32.575977
2019-01-08  35.680000  34.490002  35.000000  34.810001  10532900.0  33.002617
```

## Step 2: Calculate the Moving Averages

The moving average can be calculated by applying the rolling() and mean() methods on the DataFrame.

The rolling() creates a window size which is the number of observations used for calculating the statistic.

To calculate the Moving Average of window size 50 will use the last 50 data points to calculate the mean. To be consistent with Yahoo! Finance way of calculate the value, they use the Close price.

```import pandas_datareader as pdr
import datetime as dt
import xlsxwriter
import pandas as pd

start = dt.datetime(2019, 1, 1)
ticker = pdr.get_data_yahoo("GM", start)
ticker['MA50'] = ticker['Close'].rolling(50).mean()
ticker['MA200'] = ticker['Close'].rolling(200).mean()
```

Which will give a tail similar to this output.

```                 High        Low       Open  ...  Adj Close     MA50     MA200
Date                                         ...
2020-12-14  42.540001  41.419998  42.490002  ...  41.619999  38.5632  29.03155
2020-12-15  42.160000  41.310001  41.990002  ...  41.660000  38.7772  29.08725
2020-12-16  41.869999  40.810001  41.790001  ...  41.419998  38.9976  29.13670
2020-12-17  42.029999  41.430000  41.709999  ...  42.029999  39.2058  29.19635
2020-12-18  42.042801  41.139999  42.020000  ...  41.389999  39.3894  29.25985
```

Where the Moving Averages are added to the DataFrame.

## Step 3: Exporting to Excel using XlsxWriter

We will use the powerful XlsxWriter to create our Excel sheet.

You can write the DataFrame directly by using to_excel(…), but we want to do more than that. Hence, we use the XlsxWriter directly.

```import pandas_datareader as pdr
import datetime as dt
import pandas as pd

start = dt.datetime(2019, 1, 1)
ticker = pdr.get_data_yahoo("GM", start)
ticker['MA50'] = ticker['Close'].rolling(50).mean()
ticker['MA200'] = ticker['Close'].rolling(200).mean()
# We only want the index as a date and not datetime object
ticker.index = ticker.index.date
# We skip the first 200 entries, as it they do not have the MA200
ticker = ticker.iloc[200:]
# We reverse the DataFrame to have newest first
ticker = ticker.iloc[::-1]
# Create a Pandas Excel writer using XlsxWriter as the engine.
writer = pd.ExcelWriter('moving_average.xlsx', engine='xlsxwriter')
# Convert the dataframe to an XlsxWriter Excel object.
ticker.to_excel(writer, sheet_name='Moving Averages')
# Remember to close the writer to write the Excel sheet
writer.close()
```

This will create an Excel sheet similar to this one.

## Step 4: Adding formatting to the cells

This is a bit more complex as we need to do the magic here.

We first need to create a reference to the sheet (worksheet) we work on to access the functionality.

The first thing we do is to resize column A, such that it opens in the correct size to see the date. This is done by using set_column(…).

Then we create a format, which can be applied on Excel cells. This is how we color them. Hence, we create one for green cells and later one for red cells.

We insert them by using conditional_format(…), which a range of cells. This can be applied in different ways, we use the A1 notation.

The options parameter in conditional_format(…) must be a dictionary containing the parameters that describe the type and style of the conditional format. To see details of the format please refer to the manual.

```import pandas_datareader as pdr
import datetime as dt
import pandas as pd

start = dt.datetime(2019, 1, 1)
ticker = pdr.get_data_yahoo("GM", start)
ticker['MA50'] = ticker['Close'].rolling(50).mean()
ticker['MA200'] = ticker['Close'].rolling(200).mean()
# We only want the index as a date and not datetime object
ticker.index = ticker.index.date
# We skip the first 200 entries, as it they do not have the MA200
ticker = ticker.iloc[200:]
# We reverse the DataFrame to have newest first
ticker = ticker.iloc[::-1]
# Create a Pandas Excel writer using XlsxWriter as the engine.
writer = pd.ExcelWriter('moving_average.xlsx', engine='xlsxwriter')
# Convert the dataframe to an XlsxWriter Excel object.
ticker.to_excel(writer, sheet_name='Moving Averages')
# Get the xlsxwriter objects from the dataframe writer object.
workbook = writer.book
worksheet = writer.sheets['Moving Averages']
# Resize the column A
worksheet.set_column("A:A", 12)
# Calculate the last row number (we insert first DataFrame row in row 2)
last_row = len(ticker) + 1
# Create a format for a green cell
cell_format_green.set_bg_color('green')
# Create a conditional formatted of type formula
worksheet.conditional_format('H2:I{}'.format(last_row), {'type':     'formula',
'criteria': '=\$H2>=\$I2',
'format':   cell_format_green})
# Create a format for a red cell
cell_format_red.set_bg_color('red')
# Create a conditional formatted of type formula
worksheet.conditional_format('H2:I{}'.format(last_row), {'type':     'formula',
'criteria': '=\$H2<\$I2',
'format':   cell_format_red})
# Remember to close the writer
writer.close()
```

This will result in the expected Excel sheet.

## Step 5: Validating it works as expected

Now for the final test.

The colors should be updated dynamically. Let’s try to change the value and see what happens.

It does. If we change the value of H2 to 10, it turns the cells to red.

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